Re: navarasAlu

Ram Vishnubhotla (ramvish@mms.water.ci.detroit.mi.us)
Thu, 13 Apr 1995 13:16:54 -0400 (EDT)


namastE!,

	I requested Sri Narasimham L. Paranandi to give a detailed 
definition of each rasa of navarasAlu. He is kind enough to prepare an 
excellant article and mailed it to me. I am sending it to our group as 
they can get as much information as they are looking for from this article.

He is known as PALANA and regular contribhtor to the SCIT.

Regards,

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 13 Apr 95 12:50:57 EDT
From: PALANA <nparinand@cas.org>
To: Ram Vishnubhotla <ramvish@mms.water.ci.detroit.mi.us>
Subject: Re: navarasAlu

Dear Sri Ramanna garu:

     This is not elaborate but a boring essay I compiled.
     I am working on the rasas of adharvana veda.
     That will be sent to you soon.  Then it will make more sense.
     Let me know how you feel about this.
     Hope I have disseminated the Ba'va so that you can enjoy the rasa
     of this essay.
     regards
     narsi
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

			     rasa - rasamu
			     -------------

      "Rasa" is a Sanskrit word and borrowed into several languages.

      Apte says in his Sanskrit dictionary:

		  rasa = sap, juice (of trees)
			 liquor, drink
			 taste, flavor, relish

			 In Vyasa's philosophy rasa is one of the 24 guNa's.
			 That is also the Upanishad sara'mSa.

			 The shaDrasa's (shaDruculu) - uppu, pulupu, ka'ramu,
			 tiipi, cEdu, and vagaru are gustatory rasa's and
			 according to Munukumtla Sambasiva (a student of Vempati
			 Chinasatyam and the author of Koocipoodi Natyamanjari
			 calls these shaDrasa's - loukika rasa'lu.

			 "rasa" also stands for taste or inclination for a thing
			 such as liking or desire, love, affection, pleasure,
			 delight, happiness, elegance, and beauty (Apte).

			 In poetic expressions, the rasa is used to describe
			 pathos, emotion, and feeling.

			 For a sentiment - rasa is often used.

			 Apte says "Rasas are more or less a necessary factor of
			 every poetic composition, but according to Visvanatha,
			 they constitute the very essence of poetry."

			 The whole Indian chemistry (Alchemistry) evolved from
			 "rasa".


      Rasa is to be possessed and enjoyed (a'sva'dimcuTa).  Physical union of
      chemical substances such as liquids and sugar create the rasas.  This
      chemical combination creates the taste - the gustatory appeal.  It is
      merely a bodily neurosensory feeling - jiiva'niki samtRuptiniccE
      pada'rdha'lu.  Similiarly a plethora of thoughts unite and
      create the rasa's of the other type - the abstract rasas attached with the
      inner self.  We ofter eat the dishes and describe the tastes (loukika
      rasa's). Similary the abstract rasa's (emerged from the
      thoughts) are received and enjoyed by the individual (e.g. a dance
      performance or musical concert enjoyed by a spectator).  With out these
      abstract rasa's the dance performance or musical concert will be
      tasteless, odourless, and colorless - lacks the abstract chemistry but
      the chemistry behind the human feelings and emotions.  Eventhough these
      abstract rasa's are considered as rasa's (just as the shaDrasa's or
      shaDruculu), they are as powerful or ever more potent than the loukika
      rasa's closely associated with the kaLalu (fine arts) in amalgamating the
      performer, performance, and the spectator.  Without these abstract rasa's
      there is no meaning attached to any nonparametric expression.  This is the
      absolute truth.  Only humans possess this quality of distinguishing and
      enjoying the abstract rasa's.  What a creation! (one of the rasa's
      expressed by me here. Hope you understand that.  That is the rasa:
      adButamu.)

      Ba'va's (thoughts - inner) unite together and create rasa's.
      Three important Ba'va's such as the viBa'va, anuBa'va, and vyaBica'ri
      react in an unision and give birth to various rasa's (inner abstract
      rasa's).

      Rasa's, the inner abstract ones, have occupied the most important seat in
      Indian classical dances.  Bharata, the father of the Natya Sastra who
      learnt the art of dance from Lard Siva (na'Tya Sa'strmu Sivuni vaddanoo)
      and the philosophy of Rasa Sastra from Nandikesvara (rasa Sa'strmu
      namdikESwaruni vaddanoo) created the Natya Sastra and divided it into 11
      divisions : (1) rasamu; (2) Ba'vamu; (3) aBinayanamu; (4) dharmi; (5)
      vRuttulu; (6) pravRutti; (7) sidhdhi; (8) svaramu; (9) atOdyamu; (10)
      ga'namu; and (11) ramgamu.  That was how the 5th vEda, the pamcama vEdamu,
      Na'tya vEdamu evolved.  Brahmadeva picked up va'cikamu from RugvEdamu,
      samgiitamu from sa'mavEdamu, aBinayanamu from yajurvEdamu, and "rasamu"
      from adharvaNavEdamu and created this novel vEda, the na'TyavEdamu.  Siva
      is the ruler of this dance (na'Tya) and Nandikesvara is the ruler of the
      rasa (Ba'vOdBava rasamulu - the abstract tastes which originate from the
      unision of abstract thoughts out human emotional sphere).

      In other words, the rasa is the product of the reactants, the
      performer-performance and spectator - that is the abstract feeling.
      For one's information a great deal of chemistry is involved in this sort
      of reaction of human feelings, thoughts, emotions, and actions.
      Scientists are gallopping to get answers hoc tempore.


      The rasa's are 9 out of which 8 rasa's were discovered by Bharata and the
      9th, the Sa'mta rasa, was discovered by udBaTa (udBaTuDu).

      SlOkam: Srumga'ra ha'sya karuNa' roudraviira Baya'naka'h
	      BiibatsadbutaSa'mta'Sca navana'TyE rasa'h smRuta'h

	      1) Srumga'rarasamu
	      2) ha'syarasamu
	      3) karuNarasamu
	      4) roudrarasamu
	      5) viirarasamu
	      6) Bayanakarasamu
	      7) BiiBatsarasamu
	      8) adButarasamu
	      9) Sa'mtarasamu

       In originality, there are actually 8 rasa's and as it was mentioned
       earlier, the 9th one was added.  Ocassionally a 10th one is also included
       according to Apte:

	     10) va'tsalyarasamu.

       The written piece (ka'vyamu) disseminates the Ba'vamu and that ka'vyamu
       is responsible for the emergence of Ba'vamu (thought or meaningful
       thought) in the hearts of ordinary humans.  Ba'vamu originates from
       viBa'vamu, and expressed as anuBa'vamu and aBinayanamu - that is what a
       poet does through his poem.

       SlOkamu: Bavamti itiBa'va'h

	      viBa'vamu means the one one responsible for the greatest wealth
       of knowledge.

       (I may supplement an addition on Bhavas later.)

       Now going back to the classification of the rasa's, these are nothing but
       the anuBava's coming from the gunOdBava Ba'va'lu.  These rasa's are also
       the depiction of Lord Siva - the ardhana'riiSvara.

       These rasa's have close affinity with the 7 different ta'mDava's of Lord
       Siva:

	    1) a'namda ta'mDavamu  : sRushTi, sthiti, laya, anugraha, tirOdha'na
	    2) samdhya' ta'mDavamu : making others happy
	    3) kalika ta'mDavamu   : destruction of the evil
	    4) vijaya ta'mDavamu   : rudra the roudra
	    5) Urdhva ta'mDavamu   : competition
	    6) uma' ta'mDavamu     : meeting the death
	    7) samha'ra ta'mDavamu.: offering the ultimate solvation


       Revisiting the rasa's:

	    1) SRumga'rarasamu : SRumga'ra poorNa rasamu
				 The beauty, love, ectasy.
				 The aesthetics.
				 (a'namda ta'mDavamu)

	    2) ha'syarasamu : The humor.
			      The basis for wisdom
			      Dreams + Reality + Humor : WISDOM

	    3) karuNarasamu: The compassion
			     (saving the dead)

	    4) roudrarasamu: The anger
			     (while fighting with the evil.)

	    5) viirarasamu: The courage/Heroism
			     (After defeating the evil and attaining victory.)

	    6) Baya'nakarasamu: The Fear
			   (making others scared)
			    (Driving away the evil and death and demons.)

	    7) BiiBatsarasamu: The chaos
			       (disequilibrium)
			       (The universe is always in equilibrium and
			       disequilibrium!).

	    8) adButarasamu: Terrific/Exclamatory/unimaginable


	    9) Sa'mtarasamu: Peace/Tranquility
			     (Meditation).


     There is another way explaining these rasa's on upanishadic grounds.
     -------------------------------------------------------

     References:

     1) Hindu Dharma Sarvasvamu: Sivananda Sarasvati\Translated by
				 P. Nagabhushanam

     2) Koocipoodi Natyamanjari: Munukumtla Sambasiva

     3) The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Vaman Shivaram Apte